Holiday Destinations – Messinia – A Holiday Guide to the Messinia Peninsula


Messinia lays on the southern part of mainland Greece, now divided from the mainland by the Corinth Canal. The peninsula hosts some of the most important and impressive ancient sites in Greece. It has a warm winter, it’s not too hot in summer and boasts some of the best and cleanest beaches in the whole of Greece. Even in the height of the summer holiday season there are no more than a handful of people to be seen on them.

The mountain landscape of the Messinian Mani is simple stunning and is dominated by Taygetos, one of the largest mountain ranges in the Peloponnese. Whereas the Messinian peninsular has rolling hills and fertile valleys considered to be the market garden and wine centre of Greece.

It is an ideal place to relax and go for walks. Wander off the beaten track into the old hill towns and discover the true beauty of the region. A world apart from the islands, the beautiful and sparsely populated the Peloponnese is a bastion of disappearing Greek village life. The rural villages in this area are beautifully authentic, traditional and spread out. The local villagers are friendly and welcoming, often plying new tourists with gifts of wine and oranges.

The city of Kalamata with all its facilities nestles at the head of the Messini Bay in between the two peninsulas, thus making it an ideal location for a dream holiday.


The capital and chief port of Messinia, Kalamata is the land of the Kalamatianos dance and the silk kerchief. Of succulent black olives, honeyed figs and the sesame-covered sweet called pastelli. The town is dominated by the 13th century fortress above it built by Geoffrey de Villehardouin. On the north side of the citadel there is a small Byzantine church, dedicated to the Virgin of Kalomata (of the good eye), from which the town may have acquired its name.

From the fortress you can survey the expanse of sea below with its sandy and pebbly shores or turn your gaze upon the deep green plain, the “happy land” of the ancients.

The old city is reaches out underneath the fortress. This is where the Byzantine church of the Virgin Ypapanti and the convent of the Kalograies, where the nuns weave the famous Kalamata silk, are situated.

There are many churches in town, the oldest being the historic church of Agii Apostoli (13th c.), where the Greek Revolution against the Turks was formally declared on March 23, 1821. Kalamata has an archaeological and folklore museum, a fine arts museum and a library containing 60.000 volumes.

Every summer cultural events like concerts and plays put on by the Kalamata theatre are held in the amphitheatre of the fortress. In the evening, the town comes alive, especially along the waterfront which is lined with tavernas, seafood restaurants and rotisseries serving local dishes and drinks, fresh fish, roast suckling pig and chicken, sausages, cheese, olives, retsina and ralki.


The small town of Methoni is on the south western tip of the Peloponnese. It is dominated by its impressive fortress stretching into the sea separated from the town by a wide (and now dry) moat. Methoni fortress joins those in Crete and Cyprus as a stepping stone on the pilgrim route to the holy land. The pretty town with its pleasant old houses with wrought-iron balconies shelters behind the fortress and has a delightfully lazy Greek air.

Homer called Methoni “rich in vines” and tradition maintains that the town is so called because the donkeys (oni) carrying its wine used to get drunk (metho) from the heavy aroma.

Methoni beach lies below the fortress and is well known for its magnificent, uncrowded, long stretch of sand and shallow sea. It was awarded a blue flag in 2001 and is ideal for families. In season there is a good selection of traditional Greek tavernas, restaurants, bars, banks. and supermarkets.

The Fortress of Methoni

The fortress is the best preserved in the entire Mediterranean. Evidence of past visitors includes the remnants of a Venetian cathedral and a Turkish bath within the fortress walls. In the town are some enormous Venetian wells whose marble rims are furrowed by the pressure of huge ropes over the centuries. Inside the fortress is an entire medieval town and you can literally spend hours wandering around.

The site was fortified as early as the 7th century B.C., and in the period between 395 A.D. and 1204 A.D. was used as a Byzantine fortress. The area was dominated by the Franks for a very short period and in 1206 was captured by the Venetians who strengthened the fortification, incorporating the pre-Christian defensive structures. In 1500 Methoni was captured by the Turk Bayazit Pasha, again came under Venetian occupation from 1685 until 1715, and was for a second time dominated by the Turks who kept it under their control until 1829, when it was liberated by the French general Maison, along with other towns of the Peloponnese.

For many years the buildings of the fortress have been restored by the Archaeological Service. The most important monuments of the site are:

The fortress and remains of a secular, religious buildings inside the fortified area.

The Byzantine church of Aghia Sophia (Holy Wisdom).

The remains of Turkish Baths.

The ruins of a house which was used as the residence of Ibrahim Pasha in 1826, and of General Maison after the liberation.

The church of the Metamorphosis (Transfiguration). A single-aisled church built in 1833 by the French liberation army.

The remains of structures from the Second World War. The Cisterns and remains of the cemetery of the British prisoners.

“Bourtzi”. A fortified islet at the south end of the fortress, occupied by an octagonal tower with isodomic wall masonry


The town of Pylos is undoubtedly one of the most attractive coastal villages in Greece. It is built on a hill side on the south coast of the bay of Navarino. Snow-white two-storey houses with courtyards drenched in flowers. The arcaded streets make you think you’ve been transported to an island. The main square is situated on the water front. It’s ringed with pastry shops and sheltered by enormous, centuries-old plane trees.

The TurkoVenetian fortress, known as Neokastro, dominates the west side of town. One of the most attractive in the Peloponnese, it is called that to distinguish it from the ancient fortress to the southwest, named Paliokastro or Palionavarino. The bay of Voidokilia with its sandy beach extends from the base of the old castle. A tranquil, carefree sanctuary, the floor of the bay is covered with a thick layer of sand. There are two castles; one on each side of the bay and nearby is the Mycenean Palace of Nestor one of the best preserved of all Mycenean palaces. Many of the frescos and artifacts found here are now in the archeological museum in nearby Chora.

The Battle of Navarino Bay

Pylso was the site of the battle of Navarino which was not even supposed to be a battle but became the turning point in Greece’s War of Independence when the British, French and Russian fleets under Admiral Codrington ‘accidentally’ sank 53 ships of Ibraham Pashas combined Turkish, Egyptian and Tunisian fleets.

Though meant to be a warning for the Turkish ships to leave the bay the end result is that those ships are still there to this day and can be seen in the clear waters. Though an embarrassment for Britain, the end result of this misunderstanding was that the Peloponessos was liberated and the Peleponisos became the nation of modern Greece.


Gargaliani nestles on a lush green hillside. It’s worth going up to the town just to see the view that unfolds beneath it. There a magical carpet of olive trees and vines that stretches to the sea. Marathoupoli and the islet of Proti and the site of a ruined Mycenaean acropolis form the backdrop. Hora is built on a hilltop behind and has preserved its old-fashioned appearance — stone houses with tiled roofs and narrow lanes. Filiatra is not far off. The whole district is dotted with churches, Byzantine and Frankish, of a venerable age.


The town is position as if it were wedged into the base of its fortress. The lower districts reaching as far as the sandy shore lapped by the lonian sea. Beyond the fortress lays a beautiful plain planted with olive trees and grapevines which give way to open seas with an infinite expanse of cobalt blue. It is said that the view of the sunset from the fortress is one of the most superb in the world. Everything here is instil with history and a fascinating light. Everywhere you look you can see ancient, Byzantine and Frankish monuments. Peristera is a place a little past the village of Raches (approx 5 km. from Kiparissia), where three beehive tombs have been excavated.


Finikounda is a picturesque fishing village at the back of a bay.

Caiques and fishing boats are drawn up all along its sandy shore, while its taverns serve their fresh catch to little tables at the water’s edge.


The road coils like a gigantic serpent slowly amidst lush green fields to arrive at Koroni. Its medieval atmosphere is embossed in its old mansions, its churches and its fortress. Its surrounded by still, sheer water, sandy beaches and opposite the little island of Venetiko with its delightful beach. From its hilltop site the Venetian citadel crowns the town. A proper eagle’s nest, with thick walls and colossal gates, it cuts a powerful and glorious figure. Below the fortress in a small palm grove is a little building housing Koroni’s collection of historical and archaeological artefacts. The outstanding beauty of the area is unimpeded and uninterrupted, therefore, provides continuous surprises.

Fortress of Koroni

The fortress occupies the headland to the east of the modern town and is built on the ruins of the ancient Messenian town of Asine. It was constructed in the 6th or 7th century A.D., and was used all through the Byzantine period. Koroni was captured by the Venetians in 1206 and was used as a supplying centre. In 1500 the fortress was occupied by the Turk Bayazit Pasha and remained under Turkish control until 1686 when it was recaptured by the Venetians. In 1715, when the Venetians left the Peloponnese, the fortress was again dominated by the Turks who kept it until 1828, when it was liberated by the French general Maison.

For many years, the Archaeological Service has been carrying out restoration work on many of the fortresses buildings.

The most important monuments of the site are:

The Byzantine Castle.

In the 13th century it was fortified by the Venetians who were responsible for the construction of towers and machicolations.

Byzantine church of Aghia Sophia (Holy Wisdom).

Three-aisled basilica with colonnades. A second church was built over the prothesis, also dedicated to Aghia Sophia and was reconstructed at the beginning of the century.

Church of St. Charalambos.

A spacious, single-aisled, wooden-roofed church built at the beginning of the second Venetian occupation. It was originally dedicated to St. Rocco.

Church of Panaghia Eleistria.

A spacious, single-aisled, wooden-roofed church, dating back to the end of the 19th or the beginning of the 20th century.


Petalidi protrudes out from the head of a little bay. The sandy or pebbly beaches around the town are shallow and sheltered from the wind and are lined with banana trees. The beautiful main square is surrounded by souvenir shops, café tarvernas, and restaurants.

Central Messinia

Driving through central Messinia you come across beautiful authentic, traditional Greek villages. Peloponnese is a bastion of disappearing rural Greek village life. You will discover mini natural paradises harbouring ruins of prehistoric settlements, ancient temples, medieval castles and Byzantine churches. No doubt you will find yourself relaxing in one of the friendly cafes for a cup of coffee and a “kalimera” (good morning).

Ancient Messene


Mavromati (32 km. from Kalamata) is a small village built like an amphitheatre up the foothills of the sacred mountain of Ithomi. Today it’s called Voulkano and is where the sanctuary of Zeus Ithomatos was located.

One of the legends upheld that Zeus was born not in Crete or on Olympus, but here at Ithomi, where he was brought up by two nymphs, Ithomi and Neda. Water flows from the heart of the mountain to splash out of a black hole in the rock face in the centre of the village. This is where Mavromati gets its name from. Mavromati means black eye.

Archaeological Site

Aesklepieion complex: The Temple of Asklepios and Hygeia. It’s a peripteros, doric temple. It was destroyed by an unidentified reason and it was rebuilt of a local though stone.

A small theatre-odeion belongs to the Asklepieion complex. An inscription was found which informs us that the building was found and called “Decterion”. It was a room for rhetorical displays and assemblies.

Bouleuterion: A rectangular almost square room which also belongs to the Asklepieion complex. Its dimensions are: 19×18.30m. There are two entrances at the west side of the building.

The wall which dates back to the 3rd century B.C. is one of the most important achievements of the ancient military architecture. Arcadic gate which is at the north side of the wall is still very impressive. It was the main gate of Messene and was the way to Arcadic Megalopolis which started from its external “door”. Temple of Artemis Limniatis or Lafria. It’s a small temple of the Ionic style. It’s dates back to the middle of the 3rd century B.C.

Sanctuary of Zeus Ithomatas. The statue of Zeus, designed by the Argive Sculptor named Ageladas, was here. This type of statue, which represented Zeus as a child, isn’t known to us.

Theatre-Stadium: There are only remains of the walls which supported the concave of the theatre. The lower seats of the stadium and especially those of the section of the sphendone have survived better than others.

Messinia – A Dream holiday destination

Messinia is a brilliant Greek destination that’s high on history, has stunning scenery, a fabulous climate, but is low on tourists, packed restaurants, noisy discos and is family-oriented. Messinia is as popular with Greek tourists as those from further afield and makes a good base for island hopping to Agistri, Poros, Hydra, and Spetses.

Other Useful Information

Tourist office in Southern Peloponnese 9699500

Main language/s Greek

To dial from Southern Peloponnese call 00

To call to Southern Peloponnese dial 30

Emergency phone number/s

British Embassy: (1) 723 6211 Police: 100 Fire: 199 Tourist Police: 171 Auto road assistance – ELPA: 104 Auto road assistance – Express

Lost travellers cheques: Thomas Cook: 00-800-4412-8366

Lost credit cards: Mastercard freephone number: 00-800-11-887-0303 VISA: call collect 24 hours a day 410 581 9994

Electricity supply 220V, 50Hz

Food: There’s a predictably wide choice of seafood and the ouzo is cheap and very good.

Nightlife: The nightlife in Peloponnese resorts tends to be low key and centered around a few bars and clubs, though some tavernas have live music. The emphasis in this area is concentrated on good company and wine.

Shopping: Local arts and crafts, wine and clothes are good buys.

Days out: Hire a boat for a trip around the Messinian Gulf, or rent a car and travel around the Messinia peninsular

Events: Arrange to watch a show at the internationally acclaimed Kalamata Dance Festival, held every summer at the Kalamata Castle, above the town. Check local tourist information. Or for further information call (UK) +44 (020) 7734 5997.

Travel Information

How to get to Messinia

Kalamata airport is served by charter flights from the UK, currently on Sundays, from Gatwick, Manchester, Birmingham, Newcastle and East Midlands. Alternatively you can fly to Athens and take an air-conditioned coach to Kalamata (four hours).

The drive from the south of England to here takes about four days with ferry from Ancona to Patras being the easiest. A great drive!

Travel Suggestions

There are many different website and discount travel companies who offer cheap charter flights. You can simply type “charter flights to Kalamata” into a search engine on the website or try some of the sites or companies listed below. The charter flights run from beginning of May to mid October and go from Gatwick, Manchester, Birmingham, Newcastle and East Midlands.

Scheduled flights to Athens go mainly from Heathrow, Gatwick and Luton although there are flights from many regional airports (mainly with British Airways). You can book online at their website and they often have competitive fares. is also often very competitive with fares from Luton and Gatwick. Olympic airlines are also very good and you can book direct with them at

To give you an idea of cost for travel midsummer, a return charter flight from Gatwick to Kalamata averages £230. A return flight on Easyjet to Athens is around £140. A scheduled return flight to Athens on British Airways averages £170. Prices do vary, dependent on how much in advance you book and the time of year you travel. Bargains are often available!


Buses from Athens to Kalamata run every hour in the mornings and every 2 hours in the afternoon, costing approx. EUR15 one way.

Car Hire

It is possible to book car hire in advance which may be collected at either Kalamata airport or Athens airport.


There are always numerous taxis waiting at Kalamata airport and Athens airport to take you to your holiday accommodation. Taxis from Athens cost approx. EUR70 from Athens to Kalamata (although you may have to share with other people).

An Airliner Flight From Take Off to Touchdown

Although passengers on commercial airline flights share concerns about airfares, on-time performance, cramped seats, and lost baggage, there is far more behind the process of flying between two cities. Indeed, it is more of an orchestration between airlines, airports, governmental agencies, and numerous other companies. The following sequence of events illustrates this.

1. At the Airport:

Preparations for a schedule or chartered airline flight, whether it be a one-hour hop or an intercontinental journey of 15 or more hours, begins long before the passenger departs for the airport and the aircraft itself touches down from its prior segment.

Passengers themselves are progressively checked in and their baggage is tagged, sorted, and routed. Cargo is weighed and manifested. Aircraft are cleaned, catered, serviced, and maintained.

The cockpit and cabin crew arrive at the airport, conducting briefings, but the former reviews any special load, the flight plan, and the weather, and calculates the final fuel, which includes the minimum required for the journey, along with that for reserves, holds, and diversions.

Tantamount to this process is completion of either a manual or computerized load sheet, which lists and builds upon the aircraft’s various loads and ensures that none exceed their maxima.

An Airbus A-330-200, for instance, with 15 crew members, would have a 124,915-kilo dry operating weight (DOW), to which its calculated take off fuel (TOF) of, say, 77,600 kilos, would be added, giving it a 202,515-kilo operating weight. An 18,750-kilo passenger load, comprised of 85 males, 161 females, one child, and one infant, would be added to its 8,085-kilo dead load, itself consisting of 4,320 kilos of baggage, 3,630 kilos of cargo, and 135 kilos of mail. Combined with the previous total passenger weight, it would result in a 26,915-kilo dry operating weight, which, added to the 124,915-kilo dry operating weight, would produce a 151,750-kilo zero-fuel weight.

Now added to its 77,600-kilo take off fuel, this A-330 would have a 229,350-kilo take off weight, which is just shy of its 230,000-kilo maximum. After in-flight burn of its 68,200-kilo trip fuel, it would have a 161,150-kilo landing weight, which itself is well below its 182,000-kilo maximum.

Aside from hinging upon the many previously discussed functions, the final fuel uplift additionally depends upon captain discretion. An aircraft with a 56,200-kilo final block fuel, for example, would result in a 55,800-kilo take off fuel, after the estimated 400 kilos of taxi fuel was burned, and the 44,900-kilos required for its flight plan would give a New York-Vienna A-330-200 flight a seven-hour, 12-minute enroute time, but an eight-hour, 28-minute endurance (to dry tanks).

2. At the Gate:

The weight and balance function, from which these calculations derive, implies both the load sheet’s weight build-ups and calculations and the distribution of its traffic load, and ensures that the aircraft is loaded within its safe center-of-gravity (CG) envelope, while in-flight balance is achieved by the setting of its stabilizer trim. Although this is automatically determined in the cockpit, it can be manually calculated, as can occur with Boeing 767 aircraft.

All these calculations additionally determine take off speeds and flap settings.

Although the aircraft’s position was recorded and stored in its inertial navigation system (INS) when it arrived from its last sector, along with the compass direction of true north without magnetic variation and the earth’s shape and movement, it is realigned and re-entered, adhering to the terminal building’s latitude and longitude coordinates, expressed in degrees north, south, east and west, and minutes. JFK’s position, for instance, is 40 degree, 38.9 minutes north latitude and 076 degrees, 46.9 minutes west longitude.

3. Taxi:

Two important clearances precede aircraft movement: the first, from clearance delivery, enables it to accept and pursue its flight plan, and the second, from the tower-located ground control, gives it permission to taxi to the active runway’s holding point. Push-back clearance, actually the first, is granted by the terminal’s own tower, which monitors arriving and departing movements from and to the taxiway to its ramp, over which it has jurisdiction.

Headphone-connected to the aircraft’s external port, maintenance or ramp personnel monitor engine start either during push-back, which is achieved by a towbar-connected tug, or on the ramp. Some airports, such as Atlanta-Hartsfield International, permit autonomous power reverse thrust movements of narrow body aircraft.

During taxi itself, which is not unlike an automobile’s ground movement and attained by means of a throttle advance, movement of the nose wheel steering tiller located on the captain’s lower left side, and toe brake applications, the taxi and pre-take off checklists are completed in the cockpit and exit and oxygen mask demonstrations are given by flight attendants or prerecorded films in the cabin.

Because the main wheels are located a significant distance from the nose wheel, ground turns are almost made at 90-degree angles.

A two-bell chime indicates imminent take off.

4. Take Off:

Issued one or more clearances, such as “hold short of,” “move into position and hold,” and/or “cleared for takeoff,” from the tower, the aircraft positions its nose wheel on the runway’s center line. Lighting indicates length: amber marks the last 3,000 feet, red and white the last 2,000, and all-red the last 1,000.

Take off throttle settings vary according to aircraft gross weight, runway length and surface conditions, the need to clear obstacles, and the desire to prolong engine life.

Jet engine thrust is created by the reaction principle, as expressed by Sir Isaac Newton’s third law of motion, which states that “for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.” Despite what may initially seem complex, the pure-jet engine (without external propellers) entails a four-stroke process of air intake; combustion, during which it is mixed with fuel and heated and then it expands; compression, at which time it turns both the turbine and the compressor by means of a connecting shaft; and exhaust.

As the air exits, it reacts by pushing the aircraft forward and generating thrust.

A turbofan consists of the traditional powerplant components and a forward, shrouded fan, whose rotating blades send slower, cooler, and quieter air around the hot core before it exits through the exhaust cone. This is expressed by the term “bypass ratio,” which is the ratio of thrust created by the bypassing air as opposed to that generated by the hot section. A typical high bypass ratio turbofan could have a bypass ratio of about five-to-one and can generate up to 100,000 pounds of thrust on aircraft such as the Boeing 777-300ER.

Although cockpit instrumentation, such as N1 fan speed and fuel flow, register powerplant parameters, one of the most important is its engine pressure ratio (EPR), which is the ratio between the turbine discharge and compressor inlet pressures.

There are three important, pre-calculated take off speeds, which vary according to aircraft, engine capacity, gross weight, runway length and surface conditions, atmospheric conditions, and power settings.

The first, V1 (for velocity), is the go or no-go speed. If an anomaly or emergency occurs at this point, there is still sufficient runway length remaining in which to safely stop.

The second, VR, is the aircraft’s rotation speed, at which point the stabilizers are deflected so that the airplane can “rotate” on its main undercarriage, increasing its angle-of-attack (AOA) to the onrushing air, and achieve lift. Insufficient runway remains for an aborted take off at this point. If one is attempted without the presence of an arrestor bed, overruns and potential damage and injury are to be expected.

The third speed, V2, is the safe climb-out velocity, which is usually calculated as V2 + 10 knots.

All, of course, vary according to aircraft type, version, and engine, but V-rotation speeds include 137 knots for a McDonnell-Douglas DC-9-30 with Pratt and Whitney JT8D-15 engines, 147 knots for a Boeing 737-200 with JT8D-15As, 134 knots for a Fokker F.28-4000 with Rolls Royce RB.183-555-15A Spey engines, 184 knots for a McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-30 with General Electric CF6-50C2s, 165 knots for a Lockheed L-1011-200 with Rolls Royce RB.211-524B turbofans, 177 knots for a Boeing 747-300 with Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7R4G2 turbofans, and 153 knots for an Airbus A-300-600R with General Electric CF6-80C6A5 turbofans.

None of this, needless to say, would be possible without the lift generated by the wing. Created by the pressure differential between its upper and lower surface, the former is reduced by the air passing over it and the downwash it produces as it adheres to the boundary layer over its trailing edge.

It can be illustrated by the simple physics principle, which states that “as speed increases, pressure decreases.” Since objects always take the path of least resistance, the wing moves upward, generating lift. This can also be augmented by several other factors, including wing planform (shape), aspect ratio (the ratio of its length to its width), sweepback, area, speed, temperature, and air density.

To further improve their capabilities, commercial jetliners increase lift at slow speeds, yet reduce drag at higher ones, by employing both area- and camber-increasing leading edge slats/flaps and trailing edge flaps, usually of the Fowler type, which vary from single- to double- to triple-slotted ones. Full extension of both, a configuration only used during landing, increases the wing’s area by 20 percent and its lift capability by 80 percent.

With the exception of the Airbus A-300, few modern jets are able to take off without some degree of trailing edge flap extension.

Immediately after take off, an aircraft will be instructed to contact departure control, which is usually located at the base of the control tower in a windowless facility and can provide altitude clearances and traffic-separating radar vectors. A common instruction would be, “Trans-Atlantic one-six-zero heavy, climb and maintain one zero thousand.”

Aircraft follow prescribed, airport-departing courses known as “standard instrument departures” or “SIDs.” The Ventura Seven departure from Runway 24R at Los Angeles International Airport, for example, entails a “climb on heading 251 degrees for radar vectors to (the) VTU VOR/DME, cross SMO (Santa Monica) R-154 (154-degree radial) at or below 3,000, (thence) continue (on assigned route). All aircraft expect further clearance to filed altitude five minutes after departure.”

Similarly, the Compton 2G standard instrument departure from Runway 27L at London’s Heathrow International Airport, employing a 123.9-MHz (megahertz) frequency, requires an initial, runway heading climb from the London VOR, then at seven miles DME (distance measuring equipment) a right turn to track 273 degrees to the Woodley NDB (non-directional beacon). Finally, the aircraft must maintain a 285-degree heading to the Compton VOR, but not climb above 6,000 feet unless given prior clearance to do so.

5. Cruise:

After a positive climb rate has been established only minutes after disengagement from the ground, the airliner’s undercarriage is retracted, at about 1,000 feet, usually requiring a decreased nose pitch.

Nose wheel rotations are cancelled by a wheel well snubber, while those of the main wheels cease with a brake application.

All aircraft operating near airports with Terminal Control Areas (TCAs) must have transponders and encoding altimeters, and the air traffic control provided four-digit code identifies it on radar.

Based upon gross weight and speed, the leading and trailing edge high-lift devices are often fully or progressively retracted, leaving the wing “clean.”

Now established on its flight plan, the aircraft will be handed off to an air route traffic control center (ATCC) with radio transmissions such as, “Boston Center, this is Trans-Atlantic one-six-zero, with you at flight level three-five-zero.”

In the cabin, in-flight service is likely to have begun.

The altimeter, whether in the form of the older, traditional “steam gauge” or the new, cathode ray tube (CRT) display, indicates the aircraft’s altitude and height, but they are not necessarily the same, and both can vary widely between take off and touchdown.

As an airplane climbs, static pressure, fed to an altimeter case, reduces and the capsule within the instrument expands, transmitting this change, via a mechanical linkage, to the cockpit instrument, thus measuring and displaying height, which, perhaps surprisingly, can have little relation to the aircraft’s actual height.

If, for example, it flies at 5,000 feet, it may be at exactly that altitude above mean sea level (MSL), but if it is passing over a 2,000-foot mountain, it is really only 3,000 above ground level (AGL), which, needless to say, may rapidly change as it continues to cruise, especially at high speed.

Topographical variations, from a small lake to Mount Everest, are countless, and the equality of height and altitude only occurs when it is above sea level.

In order to improve accuracy, a radio altimeter, which bounces radio waves off of and then measures the exact height above ground elevations, is used during approach, when the aircraft is usually at or below 2,500 feet.

While the pressure altimeter is set to equal the pressure of the intended airport, it is given the standard pressure setting in cruise, which is 29.92 inches of mercury (in. Hg) in North America and 1013.2 millibars (mb) elsewhere.

Altitudes above 28,000 feet are considered flight levels (FLs). 36,000 feet is therefore flight level three-six-zero, which omits the last two digits.

Speeds also vary, but are measured in knots, equivalent to a nautical mile. Ground speed (GS) is a measurement of an airplane’s speed relative to the ground, while its true air speed (TAS) is its speed relative to the air through which it passes. Wind speeds and direction cause the variations.

Navigation, adhering to an aircraft’s air traffic control, instrumental flight rules (IFR) flight plan, is achieved by a number of methods. The first of these is the VOR.

Transmitting a very high frequency (and thus its “VOR” designation) band from the 108.0 to 117.9 MHz frequency, it provides line guidance to and from the more than 700 stations in the US alone, creating reporting or waypoints, which, when linked, produce the “victor” airways below 18,000 feet and the “jet” ones above, that airliners ply.

VOR signals can be received up to 230 nautical miles away, potentially creating a 460-mile airway, and an airplane’s position to or from is considered, respectively, an in- and outbound radial, as it first flies toward and then away from it.

Displays so indicating consist of a radio magnetic indicator (RMI) needle, which points toward the ground-based beacon, and a vertical orange bar on the aircraft’s main compass system.

Standardly co-located with a VOR beacon is distance measuring equipment (DME), which transmits in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band from 962 to 1213 MHz and provides a digital readout, via the aircraft’s transponder, of its slant-range distance to the beacon itself.

The latest and most accurate navigation method is that created by the 32 earth-orbiting global positioning satellites (GPS), which determine it by means of the time difference between signal sending and receiving within a triangulation process, involving three, atomic clock-equipped satellites themselves, yielding a range readout.

Use of four such satellites, which eliminates the ionosphere- and troposphere-caused delays, results in latitude, longitude, altitude, and time determinations.

Because a flight plan’s coordinates may only be spaced 25 miles apart, a 5,000-mile sector could consist of some 200 of them, or vastly more than the VOR/DME waypoints. Nevertheless, they tick off as the aircraft proceeds, with the estimated time enroute (ETE) and fuel burn calculated between them.

Atlantic crossings, by means of latitude and longitude coordinates, are under the jurisdiction of the Atlantic Control Area, which is subdivided into the western expanse from Greenland to the Caribbean and controlled by Gander and New York, and the eastern from 300 degrees and is controlled by the combined Shannon and Prestwick air traffic area designated Shanwick.

To accommodate the unprecedented number and frequencies of trans-Atlantic crossings, a half-dozen east- and westbound, parallel North Atlantic tracks, based upon the best available routes and most favorable winds, are published twice daily.

Lettered, the eastbound ones include track alpha, bravo, Charlie, delta, echo, and foxtrot. Valid for crossings between the Canadian and Ireland/United Kingdom coasts, they consist of ten-minute same and 60 nautical mile different track longitudinal separations and 2,000-foot same and identical altitude different vertical separations.

Outboard, high-speed aileron locks ensure minimum cruise bank angles. Although altitudes are flight plan assigned, gross weight, engine thrust, and wing capability may initially require step-climbs–that is, progressively higher altitudes facilitated by fuel-burn and weight reductions, although crews can request different flight levels to avoid or minimize weather- and turbulence-caused passenger discomfort. Even different tracks can be requested, if available.

Fuel consumption and throttle settings vary according to the aircraft, its gross weight, altitude, and flight mode. During take off, a full throttle to the take off/go-around (TOGA) detente may result in a 32-ton-per-hour fuel burn on a Boeing 747-400, although this setting may only be maintained for a scant few minutes until it is airborne, while it would be reduced to a third, of between ten and 12 tons, in cruise.

Despite its advancement, the Aerospatiale-British Aerospace Concorde, because of the rarefied air in which it had supersonically cruised and the unfeasibility of installing large-diameter turbofans in its wing root configuration, maintained full throttle settings of its Rolls Royce, afterburner-equipped Olympus engines throughout its entire flight. Slower, cooler bypassing air would have been ineffective in thrust production in such an atmosphere. Yet, in order to avoid nose and airframe over-temperature limits, it was given a block altitude in which it could slowly climb as fuel burn-weight reductions would otherwise have eclipsed its never-exceed speed.

Integral and indispensable to any modern jetliner is the flight management system (FMS). Located on the cockpit’s center console between the captain and the first officer, it offers integrated inertial navigation, performance, and fuel management functions, enabling countless pages of information to be either inserted or requested by means of a numbered and lettered keyboard, including airport SIDs and STARs, and the aircraft’s origin-to-destination flight plan.

Through the system, the autothrottle maintains the proper engine pressure ratio in its VNAV (vertical navigation) mode during climb, cruise, and descent. Much more than that, however, it receives and processes a barrage of sometimes beyond human brain capability information, such as N1 fan speed, fuel flow, and ground speed, always providing the optimum performance in accordance with the selected parameters, like best time, minimum fuel, maximum range, and lowest cost.

6. Descent and Landing:

Receiving its initial descent clearance from the air route traffic control center, whose jurisdiction it is presently under, the aircraft begins a one- to two-degree, 1,000-fpm altitude loss, now encased in increasingly louder slipstream, while flight attendants secure the cabin, closing all galley compartments and drawers, ensuring that seats are in their upright positions, that seatbelts are fastened, that carry-on luggage does not obstruct any aisles, that the overhead storage compartments are latched, and that class curtain dividers are open, and perhaps returning coats and other garments to first and business class passengers.

Cabin pressurization is set to equal that of the arrival airport. The automatic terminal information service (ATIS), a pre- and progressively-recorded message concerning cloud coverage, ceiling, visibility, type and extent of precipitation (if any), temperature, dew point, wind velocity and direction, barometric pressure altimeter setting, the active runway(s), the type of instrument approach, and special information, like field conditions, taxiway closures, inoperative facilities, and wind shear, is accessed and lettered as updates necessitate, resulting in “information alpha,” “information bravo,” “information Charlie.”

Clearance, below 14,000 feet, has already been handed off to the respective arrivals control. Throttle settings are most likely at idle.

As had occurred after departure with the standard instrument departure, or SID, approaches have their counterpart–standard arrival routes or STARs, although air traffic control vectoring to increase spacing because of poor weather and/or peak traffic conditions, as well as placing aircraft in holds over VORs, during which they pursue four nautical mile racetrack patterns, are common.

The Dekal Four Arrival at Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport, for example, lists three transitions from Freeport, Nassau, and Ursus. The middle one, from Nassau, Bahamas, entails following the 315 radial on a 300-degree heading and at a 6,000-foot altitude from the ZQA VOR/DME, before intercepting the ZBV 100 radial to the ZBV VORTAC (a navigational aid consisting of a co-located VHF omnidirectional range–VOR–beacon and a tactical air navigation system–TACAN–beacon), continuing on the 100 radial from Carey on a 280-degree heading, still at 6,000 feet, and finally intercepting the 300 radial on a 300-degree heading and maintaining 4,000 feet to Dekal. “Thence, from over Dekal, expect radar vectors to final approach course.”

Approach types vary from visual, VOR/DME, ILS, and coupled visual-ILS, among others.

The ILS, the instrument landing system, provides a precision approach from ten to up to 50 nautical miles, at a three-degree glideslope, to runways equipped with both a localizer, which is a radio signal offering center line guidance, and the glideslope itself, which facilitates profile guidance to the touchdown point.

Three ILS marker beacons, transmitting on a 75-MHz frequency, indicate the remaining distance to this point: the outer marker (OM), located at about five nautical miles from touchdown, the middle marker (MM) at between one and 0.5 miles, and the inner marker (IM) at the threshold.

Threshold speeds vary with aircraft, such as 137 knots for a Boeing 727-200 with Pratt and Whitney JT8D-17 engines, 142 knots for a McDonnell-Douglas DC-8-71 with CFM-56-2-C5 turbofans, 146 knots for a Lockheed L-1011-500 with Rolls Royce RB.211-524Bs, and 141 knots for a Boeing 747-100 with General Electric CF6-45A2s.

Having already been handed off to the airport’s tower, maintaining an approximate 1.2 engine pressure ratio reading, and capturing the instrument landing system, the aircraft extends its area- and camber-increasing leading and trailing edge devices, assuming an ever-shallower sink rate, from perhaps 100- to 50-fpm. Spoilers are armed to extend upon main wheel compression and brakes can be set for the optimum stopping distance according to runway length, touchdown speed, and surface conditions, such as water or ice.

Passing over the outer marker, it is issued its “cleared to land” instructions.

Maintaining a 1.14 engine pressure ratio and having its altitude, heading, speed, descent rate, power settings, and time to touchdown closely crew monitored, it passes over the threshold, its height either called out by the non-flying pilot or automatically announced.

“50 feet… 40… 30.”

Pitching its nose up and profiling it for main wheel contact, the aircraft sinks the last few feet.

“20 feet… 10… retard (the autothrottles close).”

Upper wing surface spoiler panels deflect by as much as 60 degrees, impeding the air flow’s lift generating capability and transferring the airplane’s weight to its wheels. Reverse thrust, usually by means of clamshell doors, is activated when the exhaust is laterally and then forwardly vectored, reducing the deceleration run and minimizing brake usage, which generates considerable heat. steering is attained with the rudder, via the rudder pedals.

A forward yoke pressure enables the nose wheel to make runway contact, with steering itself transferred to its tiller at about ten knots.

Contacting ground, it receives its taxi instructions to its gate or parking stand, where passengers disembark, their baggage is sent to the arrival carrousel, and cargo is transferred to the warehouse for sorting.

Poised to operate its next sector, which could occur in 30 minutes or in several hours, the aircraft will be subjected to the same process all over again.

Lehman Cave ao amin’ny Great Basin

“Misy karazana vato roa ao amin’ny Lehman Caves,” hoy ny mpiambina ny valan-javaboary tamin’ny vondrona. “Ny lohalika sy ny lohalika. Tandremo izy roa rehefa ao ianao.” Avy eo dia nentiny teo amin’ny varavarana mavesatra izahay ary niditra tao amin’ny tionelina lava be vita amin’ny simenitra. Nihazakazaka sy nifandona tamin’ny halavan’ny tionelina ny dingan’ny dianay. Nampangatsiatsiaka anay ny rivotra milamina, 50 degre Fahrenheit (10 degre Celsius), rehefa nandalo ny varavarana nahavita ny hidin-trano izahay, ary niditra tao amin’ilay labyrinth ambanin’ny tany izahay tamin’ny farany.

Rehefa milentika ny masoandro, ny Valan-javaboarin’i Great Basin any atsinanana-afovoan’i Nevada dia eo ambanin’ny aloky ny Snake Range’s Wheeler Peak, izay, amin’ny 13,063 metatra (3982 metatra), no teboka avo indrindra ao Nevada. An-tapitrisa taona lasa izay, ny magma dia niditra tao amin’ny fikambanan’ny quartzite, izay nahaforona ny ankamaroan’ny Range Snake, sy ny vatosokay teo amin’ny ilany atsinanana. Nanova ny sasany tamin’ny vatosokay ho marbra ny hafanan’ny magma. Izany no dingana voalohany lehibe tamin’ny fananganana ireo zohy.

Tamin’ny fotoana iray, ny toetr’andro any atsinanan’i Nevada dia mando kokoa noho ny amin’izao fotoana izao ary, vokatr’izany, avo kokoa ny taham-drano. Ny ranonorana, izay mifoka gazy karbonika avy amin’ny rivotra mba hamorona asidra karbônika – ny asidra malemy amin’ny soda pop – dia natsofoka tamin’ny tany ary nanapotika ny marbra. Rehefa maina ny toetr’andro, dia nihena ny tavan’ny rano, ary nipoitra tao amin’ny efitra fisakafoana sy lalantsara ny rano mitete. Very ny gazy karbonika, ny rano dia nametraka ny enta-mavesatry ny calcite mineraly (kalsioma karibonetra) amin’ny miadana kokoa noho ny sifotra – iray santimetatra isan-jato – mba hamorona soda mololo, stalactite daggers, stalagmite stumps, mistery ampinga, tsara tarehy draperies sy andry mitovy amin’ny sisa tavela tamin’i Gresy fahiny. Mba hitazonana ny fahasamihafana misy eo amin’ireo endri-javatra lava-bato mazava ao an-tsainao dia tadidio fa ny teny hoe “stalactites” dia manana ny litera “c” ary io endri-javatra io dia midina avy any amin’ny valindrihana, ary ny teny ho an’ny endri-javatra malaza hafa “stalagmites” dia misy ny litera ” g” ary miakatra avy amin’ny tany. Noho izany dia “c” ho an’ny valindrihana (stalactite) ary “g” ho an’ny tany (stalagmite).

Raha ny marina, ny stalactites dia lasa mololo soda izay niraikitra. Ny mololo misy soda dia misy rano feno mineraly mitete midina eo afovoany ary misy mineraly mivelatra izay afaka manitatra lavitra raha avela tsy hanelingelina, hatramin’ny 30 metatra (9 metatra). Raha miraikitra anefa ny farany, dia mety manomboka mitete eny ivelan’ny mololo ny rano ka mamela mineraly eny ivelan’ny mololo izay mitombo hatrany any ivelany, ka lasa stalactites, satria manomboka mihamafy ilay mololo taloha.

Hiverina any amin’ny Gothic Palace

Rehefa nentin’ilay mpiambina nandalo teo amin’ny fidirana voajanahary tao amin’ilay lava-bato izahay, ary niditra tao amin’ny Lapan’i Gothic, dia nijanona kely izy mba hitantara taminay momba an’i Absaloma S. Lehman. Nahita an’ilay lava-bato i Lehman, tompon’ny toeram-piompiana iray teo amin’ny ilany atsinanan’ny Tendrombohitra Wheeler, tamin’ny 1885. Tamin’io taona io, dia nitarika olona 800 namakivaky ny efitranony sy ny lalany izy; Tsy maintsy nidina tohatra mankeo amin’ny fidirana mitsangana ireo mpitsidika, ka tsy nampiasa afa-tsy fanilo labozia ho fanazavana, araka ny filazan’ny mpiambina.

Rehefa somary lavidavitra kokoa tamin’ny lalana ny vondronay, dia novonoin’ny mpiambina ny jiro elektrika, ka fanilo labozia ihany no navela ho loharanon-jiro. Rehefa nampiakatra ny fanilo teo amin’ny tany izy, dia nisy aloka namakivaky ilay efitrano nihalehibe. “Azonao sary an-tsaina ve ny mikaroka ireo lava-bato amin’izany fomba izany?” hoy izy nanontany. Rehefa avy nirehitra indray ny jiro, dia nanohy ny dianay iray kilaometatra izahay namakivaky ilay fitambarana fotsy misy lalan-kely miolakolaka sy efitra be dia be. Ny lalantsara sasany dia toy ny tranombakoka mampiseho ny sary sokitra ampahibemaso. Ny lalantsara hafa dia nanarona ny hareny tao anaty vala mampisafotofoto.

The Wedding Chapel and Beyond

Taorian’ny Lapan’ny Gothic, niaraka tamin’ny valin-drihana miondrika sy andry avo, dia tonga tao amin’ny Chapelan’ny fampakaram-bady midadasika izahay, izay tena nampiasaina tamin’ny lanonana fampakaram-bady dimy tamin’ny taonjato faha-19. Ao amin’ny Efitrano Mozika mifanakaiky, ny mpitari-dalana voalohany dia hamokatra naoty mozika amin’ny fipihana ny stalactites amin’ny mallets. Natsahatra anefa io fanao io rehefa hita fa nirodana ny stalactites sasany.

Tany amin’ny tohatra hazo ny vondronay dia tonga tao amin’ny Efitrano Tom-Tom, izay manana ny endri-javatra ara-jeolojika malaza indrindra amin’ny Lehman Caves – takelaka miendrika saucer antsoina hoe ampinga na pallets, miondrika avy eo amin’ny rindrina. Tsy misy mahalala tsara ny fivoaran’ny ampinga. Mety miforona izy ireo rehefa misy rano, eo ambanin’ny fanerena, mipoitra avy amin’ny triatra eo amin’ny rindrina mba hametraka sarimihetsika manify misy kalsit, ka mamorona takelaka mifanandrify maro izay toa manohitra ny herin’ny maizina. Manangana andry eo ambanin’ny maro amin’ireo ampinga ireo ny rano. Ao amin’ny iray isan-jaton’ny lava-bato sokay fantatra ihany no ahitana azy ireo; noho izany dia ho miavaka ny Lehman Caves raha tsy noho ny habetsahan’ny ampinga ao aminy.

Nandalo ny Lakandranon’ny Dragon sy ny efitranon’ny Mpanjakavavy ilay mpiambina, dia tonga tao amin’ny efitrano fandraisam-bahiny teo amin’ny sampanan’ny rafitry ny lalana ao anaty lava-bato. Notantarainy ny fomba namporisihan’i Clarence T. Rhodes, ilay mpiambina voalohany ny lava-bato taorian’ny naha-fanam-bahoaka azy, ireo mpikambana ao amin’ny Knights of Pythias sy ny Zazalahy Skoto avy any Ely, Nevada, mba hanao ny fivoriany eto. Satria tsy nanana vola tao amin’ny tetibolam-panjakana handoavana azy ny fanjakana. Atoa Rhodes dia nanan-jo tamin’izay sara azony naloany tamin’ny fidirana ary, noho izany, dia nanana tombontsoa manokana tamin’ny fampiroboroboana ireo lava-bato. Indrisy anefa ho an’ny Efitrano Lodge, nandondona ny sasany tamin’ny valindrihana ireo mpitsidika mba hanomezana efitrano, ary mbola hita eny amin’ny rindrina ny afon’ny afo.

Teny amin’ny tionelina iray, dia nentin’ilay mpiambina nankany amin’ny efitrano misy soratra izahay. Nojerena avy hatrany ireo litera sy isa mavokely teo amin’ny valin-drihana sy ny rindrina dia nilaza taminay ny anton’ilay anarana. Rehefa avy nanoro azy ireo ilay mpiambina, dia nanjera ny jirony teo akaikin’ny tionelina nandalovanay ilay mpiambina mba hampisehoana toerana kely mandady. “Ity no fomba taloha hidirana amin’ity efitrano ity”, hoy ny fanazavany. Tsy nisy afa-tsy 18-inch (45 sm) ny halavirana, dia nahazo ny anarana hoe Fat Man’s Misery ilay andalan-teny ho an’ireo mpitsidika tany am-boalohany nahavita izany. Mba hankalazana ny fikatsahany, dia nosoritan’izy ireo tamin’ny voalohany na ny daty ilay efitrano, izay tamin’ny taona 1890 no voalohany indrindra.

Niarahaba anay tao amin’ny Honahona Cypress ny fibobohan-drano. Ireo andriamanitra kely ao amin’ny Tendrombohitra Olympus dia nety ho nandrandraina tao amin’ireo dobo saro-takarina, ary nisy zavaboary calcite vitsivitsy. Ny dobo lehibe indrindra dia nomena anarana hoe Lake Como, nataon’i Rtoa Rhodes taorian’ny farihy malaza any amin’ny Alpes Italiana.

Namonjy ny tsara indrindra ho an’ny farany ny mpiambina. Ny Lapa Lehibe dia nanome anay ny fomba fijerin’ny maso ireo stalactites miendrika karaoty voasary, stalagmita miendrika betiravy ary endrika hafa mitovy amin’ny fakany ao amin’io zaridaina tena misy vato voajanahary io. Eo amin’ny tsanganana sasany dia misy tsatokazo miolikolika antsoina hoe helictites – toa misy olona nampiditra tsaramaso savoka – nanondro ny lalana rehetra, manohitra ny herin’ny maizina.

Ny Parachute, mariky ny Lehman Caves, dia nangatsiaka ara-potoana niaraka tamin’ny ampingany nisambotra ny rivotra teo ambonin’ny tadin’ny stalactite mihantona. Nanohy nieritreritra ny lanitra izahay rehefa nahita ny elatry ny Anjely, ampinga mitsangana feno tsanganana mitongilana, ary nandalo andry misy sodina antsoina hoe Vavahady Voahangy. Ny Glacier, voaforon’ny vato mikoriana izay nametrahan’ny rano kalsiôna teo ambonin’ny rindrina mitongilana, dia nitsofoka avy teo amin’ny faran’ny efitra iray. Any an-toeran-kafa, dia nandravaka ny rindrina ny krystaly lacy misy aragonita, endrika hafa amin’ny karbaona kalsioma. Teny an-dalana niverina nankeo amin’ny tonelina fivoahana, dia nampahatsiahivina indray izahay fa ny tanan’ny Nature dia nandravaka ny lava-bato Lehman.

The Nature Trail

Eo ivelan’ny tonelina fivoahana dia manomboka ny lalan’ny natiora. Amin’ny fanarahana azy, dia afaka mianatra bebe kokoa momba ny tantaran’ny valan-javaboary ianao ao amin’ny kabine taloha izay nipetrahan’i Clarence Rhodes taloha, ary mifankazatra amin’ireo hazo sy kirihitra ao amin’ny valan-javaboary. Raha ny marina, ny Snake Range dia manome anao fahafahana hijery vondrom-piarahamonina zavamaniry dimy samihafa, maneho ny fiovan’ny zavamaniry avy any Mexico ka hatrany Alaska. Ny vondrom-piarahamonina voalohany, ny Sonoran ambony, nomena anarana taorian’ny Sonora, Meksika, dia manodidina ny lava-bato Lehman miaraka amin’ny piñons sy zenevre ary midina mankany amin’ny Lohasahan’ny Snake.

Amin’ny fiara 23 kilaometatra mankany amin’ny Tobin’ny Wheeler Peak, dia afaka mahita ny sisa amin’ny fiainana ianao. Manomboka manodidina ny Tobin’ny Lehman Creek ny faritra fifindran’ny pine ponderosa, hazo firfotsy ary akoho an-tendrombohitra, izay manana ny mahogany tendrombohitra lehibe indrindra (Cercocarpus ledifolius) eran-tany. Misy aspen mihozongozona eto sy eny an-tampon-tendrombohitra.

Avo kokoa amin’ny lalana mideza sy miolakolaka, akaikin’ny Tendrombohitra tsy hita maso, dia manomboka ny faritry ny fiainana Kanadiana, miaraka amin’ny hazo Douglas fir sy Englemann spruce. Avy amin’ny tsy hita maso, miankavia ny Tendrombohitra Jefferson Davis ary ny Wheeler Peak dia miankavanana.

Amin’ny lafiny iray, manakaiky ny Hudson Bay ianao amin’ny fotoana hahatongavanao ao amin’ny Tobin’ny Wheeler Peak eo amin’ny 10.000 metatra (3048 metatra). Manalokaloka ny toeram-pilasiana ny hazo kesika, Engelmann spruce, ary aspen. Ny rafi-dalana iray dia mitondra anao mankany amin’ny timberline, ny sisiny avo indrindra amin’ny faritra Hudsonian, izay misy lalana mandika teny mampiseho anao ny zavamananaina tranainy indrindra eto an-tany – bristlecone pines (Pinus longaeva). Ny bristlecone tranainy indrindra, efa ho 5000 taona, dia nitombo teo amin’ny tehezan’ny Wheeler Peak talohan’ny nanapahana azy tamin’ny 1964.

Nantsoin’ny mponina teo an-toerana hoe Prometheus izy io, izay nanome anarana ny hazo tsirairay, anisan’izany i Bouddha sy Socrates. Ny tantara dia milaza fa ny jeografia iray nianatra ny endri-javatra Ice Age dia nanandrana naka santionan’ny Prometheus mba hahitana ny taonany. Rehefa tapaka ilay fitaovana fandrefesana santionany fototra, dia nanapaka izany izy, rehefa nahazo alalana avy amin’ny sampan-draharahan’ny ala. Taty aoriana rehefa nanisa ny peratra izy vao nahatsapa fa nokapainy ilay hazo tranainy indrindra fantatra teto an-tany. Taty aoriana dia tapa-kevitra fa 4862 taona izy io. Ny kesika bristlecone tranainy dia norefesina nandritra ny taona maro, saingy nandritra ny fotoana iray dia i Prometheus no nitazona ny firaketana.

Farany, ny faritra Arctic-Alpine dia mipaka hatrany amin’ny tampon’ny Wheeler Peak, azo tratrarina amin’ny fiakarana 2,600 metatra amin’ny lalana mirefy 6,5 km. Kely dia maniry ao amin’io faritra io, afa-tsy lichens, mosses, voninkazodia mafy sasany ary ahitra any amin’ny toerana arovana.

Eo amin’ny fiakarana mankany amin’ny toeram-pilasiana dia mivily amin’ny lalana mandika teny izay mitantara ny fitrandrahana volamena tany am-boalohany tao amin’ilay faritra. Mba hanamorana ny fitrandrahana harena an-kibon’ny tany, ny Osceola Placer Mining Company dia nanamboatra lakandrano mirefy 48 kilaometatra avy eo amin’ny Lehman Creek manodidina ny tendrombohitra tany am-piandohan’ireo taona 1880. Ny zava-nisongadina indrindra hita tamin’izy ireo dia 24 kilao (10,9 kg). Ny lalana dia mitondra mankany amin’ny sisa tavela amin’ity tetikasa ity.

Ny lalana mandika teny iray hafa dia eo amin’ny lalana maloto mankany amin’ny toby Baker Creek. Ny Sampan-draharahan’ny ala dia nametraka ny lalan’ny zavakanto rock nataon’ny kolontsaina teratany talohan’ny nahaterahan’ny foko Paiute, Goshute ary Shoshone ankehitriny.

Ny zavakanto rock tsara indrindra any atsinanan’i Nevada, na izany aza, dia ny sary sokitra noforonin’ny natiora tao amin’ny lava-bato Lehman.


Mba hahatongavana any amin’ny valan-javaboarim-pirenena Great Basin, dia mandehana eo amin’ny 68 kilaometatra any atsinanana avy any Ely, Nevada, miaraka amin’ny US Routes 6 sy 50 mankany amin’ny fihaonan’izy ireo amin’ny State Route 487, avy eo mianatsimo mankany Baker ary farany miankandrefana manaraka ny Route 488. Ny fitsangantsanganana lava-bato, izay maharitra adiny iray ho an’ny fitsidihan’ny Lodge Room hatramin’ny adiny iray sy sasany ho an’ny fitsangantsanganana Grand Palace, dia mitentina $8 sy $10, tsirairay avy ho an’ny olon-dehibe, na $4 sy $5 ho an’ny ankizy 5 – 15 taona sy zokiolona, ​​fa maimaim-poana ho an’ny ankizy latsaky ny 5 taona ho an’ny fitsidihana Lodge Room. Ny ankizy latsaky ny 5 taona dia tsy mahazo miditra amin’ny fitsidihana Grand Palace. Amin’izao fotoana izao, ny lalana vita rarivato sy ny tonelina dia mahatonga ny fahaiza-miteny tsy ilaina, saingy mbola manampy amin’ny fananana fahaiza-manao ho an’ireo fitsangatsanganana ireo.

Ny valan-javaboary dia manana toeram-pilasiana dimy efa novolavolaina ary fitobiana tranainy fito. Ny tanànan’i Baker dia manana motel sy toeram-pilasiana manokana roa, raha toa kosa ny trano fonenana fanampiny dia misy any amin’ny tanànan’i Ely any Nevada sy Milford ary Delta any Utah. Mamakivaky ireo ala ireo ny lalana, mankany amin’ny tampon-tendrombohitra ary mankany amin’ireo farihy sy reniranon’ny Snake Range. Ny foiben’ny mpitsidika dia ivelan’ny valan-javaboary ao an-tanànan’i Baker, ka azonao atao ny manamarina ny fahazoana toeram-pilasiana rehefa mandamina ny fitsidihan’ny zohy anao alohan’ny hahatongavanao ao amin’ny valan-javaboary. Raha mila fanazavana fanampiny, manorata any amin’ny Great Basin National Park, 100 Great Basin National Park, Baker, NV 89311 na antsoy (775)234-7331.

Ny tranokalan’ny Great Basin National Park dia ao amin’ny: Ny famandrihana fitsangatsanganana lava-bato dia azo atao ao amin’ny

Gua favorit ketiga saya, batu

Dari semua gua yang pernah saya jelajahi, Gua Batu Jatuh di Alabama adalah nomor 3 dalam daftar favorit saya sepanjang masa. Saya telah mengunjungi gua yang terkenal dan paling banyak dikunjungi di Alabama ini. Tumbling Rock Cave memiliki panjang lebih dari 6 mil dan merupakan jalur pendakian. Pada suatu waktu itu disebut Gua Hembusan. Sebuah sungai mengalir hampir sepanjang gua dan membentuk mata air di bawah pintu masuk. Ini adalah satu-satunya gua yang saya tahu yang mengandung minyak, Asphalt Ooze muncul di Allens Alley dekat bagian belakang gua dan menutupi tanah dengan debu yang menyembunyikannya. Itu menetes dari langit-langit dan mengalir menuruni lereng panjang ke dasar gua. Saya menyimpan sampel dalam botol berlabel Alabama Crude!

Setelah mengunjungi tuan rumah dan membayar biaya parkir kami, kami mendaki sedikit ke atas sisi gunung, membuka gerbang dan merangkak melalui pintu masuk setinggi tiga meter. Ruang pertama, Ruang Ante, adalah sebuah jalan besar di seberang sungai. Anda harus berhati-hati sejak awal, jika mata Anda tidak terbiasa dengan kegelapan, Anda bisa masuk ke lubang yang melintasi jalan. Ini adalah seluncuran selebar tiga meter yang Anda lewati. Anda mengikuti sungai ke Saltpeter Works. Ini adalah kuali besar perang saudara yang telah lama membusuk, hanya menyisakan sisa-sisa gumpalan.

Kunjungan pertama saya adalah pada bulan Juli 1971 dengan Dogwood City Grotto dan dalam perjalanan inilah saya bertemu John Wallace, seorang teman lama dan mitra caving. John berbagi bahwa ketika dia bersama istrinya, Youlanda, dia meletakkan taplak meja di dekat Saltpeter Works dan menyiapkan makan malam dengan penerangan lilin yang dia bawa ke gua.

Tidak jauh dari Saltpeter Works, kami keluar dari jalur sungai dan memasuki sebuah ruangan besar dengan dua sosok besar yang disebut Kaki Gajah. Jika Anda mendaki ke puncak satu kaki, di dekat langit-langit Anda dapat mengakses jalur kecil di atas langit-langit dan melewati jalur sungai ke tempat yang sekarang disebut Perpanjangan Vujade.

Melanjutkan ke sungai kami mendaki Wildcat Rockpile dan melewati Little Chamber of Mystery. Ada Formasi Gua di sebelah kiri dan kami melihat The Sewers hingga 15 meter. Kami kemudian kembali ke sungai dan melalui terowongan angin ke Gua Totem, Kawah Bulan. Kotak Musik Chuck ada di sisi kiri dan patut dikunjungi untuk melihat pilar-pilar tinggi. Sekarang Anda harus bersama seseorang yang akrab dengan gua untuk menemukan pintu rahasia, jika Anda tidak menemukan pintu rahasia dalam perjalanan kembali dari gua, Anda berakhir di jalur sungai mati.

Di luar pintu rahasia dan sebelum memasuki Kamar Misteri Besar, adalah Pemandian Kerajaan. Saat rute atas menuju Topless Dome dan rute bawah dipetakan, ternyata jarak antara keduanya hanya beberapa inci. Jadi, hantu digunakan untuk membuat jalan pintas ke Topless Dome. Aliran dari Dome sekarang mengalir ke bawah dan ke bawah lubang membentuk Kings Shower. Menarik melalui lubang ini dan melangkah lebih jauh ke kanan membawa Anda ke dasar Topless Dome.

Kubah setinggi 396 meter ini pernah didaki oleh Don Davison dan Cheryl Jones sekitar tahun 1979 selama dua tahun. Pendakian tersebut memiliki panjang 555 meter, menjadikannya rute teknis bawah tanah terpanjang di Amerika Serikat. Baca tentang Topless Dome Dikunjungi Kembali di Oktober 1982 NSS News.

Untuk waktu yang lama Kamar Besar Misteri adalah tempat berakhirnya gua. Sekarang ada dua lorong untuk melanjutkan ke bagian belakang gua. Keduanya sulit, saya akan mengatakan Blue Crawl terlebih dahulu karena ini yang pertama terlihat. Di seberang aula, di sebelah kiri dudukan Pohon Natal dan di atas lereng berlumpur, terdapat Johnstons Junction, jalan pendek menuju Emperor’s Hall. Seberangi kamar Kaisar dan panjat lubang dan masuki penjelajahan melingkar sepanjang 75 meter di mana Anda harus memutuskan lengan mana yang pertama kali memulai. Karena Anda tidak dapat lagi mengubah lokasi sampai Anda keluar dari sisi jauh Blue Crawl. Saat Blue Crawl keluar, itu adalah langkan sempit dan untuk mengeluarkan tubuh Anda dari lubang, Anda perlu meregangkan langkan. Saya melakukan perayapan sekali, tapi tidak lebih. Namun, saya pikir setiap orang harus mencobanya setidaknya sekali.

Keluar dari Blue Crawl dan masuk ke ruang penghancuran Inter Sanctum dan di sisi jauh drop down dan di bawah Surprise Waterfall ke Allens Alley.

Jalan kedua yang ditemukan atau harus saya katakan terbuka adalah Bunuh Diri. Kembali ke kamar Kaisar ke bawah dan ikuti sisi kanan konstruksi Pohon Natal ke permukaan sungai. Ikuti penjelajahan pasir di sisi kiri sungai sampai Anda bisa memanjat tumpukan. Setelah tikungan dan tanjakan yang curam, Allens Alley pun dimasuki. Ini adalah rute yang lebih pendek dan lebih sering daripada Blue Crawl.

Allens Alley adalah gang panjang yang indah dengan sungai yang mengalir di atasnya. Sekitar setengah jalan, Anda harus naik ke dekat langit-langit dan merangkak melewati batas dua meter. Kemudian terbuka lagi ke sebuah ruangan besar. Hati-hati dengan Asphalt Ooze di sisi kanan, yang melintasi jalan.

Hadiah utamanya adalah Tiang Api, dan layak untuk mendaki Gunung Olympus. Struktur merah besar ini berada di atas gunung lumpur yang disebut Gunung Olympus. Ini adalah gua paling banyak yang kami tinggali setelah empat jam perjalanan dan empat jam lagi untuk keluar. Untuk menemukan akhir yang pahit, Gigi Harimau Terry, sebelum mendaki Gunung Olympus, pergi ke sisi kanan Allens Alley dan cari jalur DT. Ini sekitar 300 kaki dari cakupan sampah. Setelah muncul kembali di Grants Cemetery, sungai turun ke kanan, disebut Grants Pool. Gigi Harimau Terry ada di depannya di sebelah kiri.

Gua berlanjut, meskipun lorongnya mungkin tidak terlihat, lebih dari panjang gua yang diketahui ke sebuah gua kecil bernama Gua Kayu di sisi jauh gunung. Lukisan air yang memasuki Gua Kayu dapat dilihat di Gua Batu Tumble. Jika Anda mencari tur gua selama delapan jam yang bagus, saya merekomendasikan Tumbling Rock Cave.

Mengapa Allah Bapa tidak menjawab doa dan permohonan?

Dia digambarkan sebagai seorang lelaki tua di atas singgasana dengan banyak malaikat dan bala tentara surgawi di sekelilingnya. Dia tidak menjawab langsung kepada siapa pun dan dalam beberapa pandangan agama dia memiliki misi untuk menyampaikan permintaan Anda dan dia dapat menanggapi, sesuai dengan aturan yang Anda ikuti. Dia juga memiliki ratusan nama, memiliki banyak kesamaan, dan dianggap sebagai pembawa kebaikan saja. Yang menentang adalah iblis, salah satu malaikatnya yang rusak.

Kisahnya agak menyedihkan ketika Anda memikirkannya. Dia tidak memiliki nama dan suara dan banyak yang menganggapnya sebagai boneka bagi yang disebut Yesus Kristus, putranya, atau bagi banyak nabi yang diciptakan. Di situs web Kristen kata-kata ini menarik perhatian saya baru-baru ini: “Tuhan datang ke dunia dan mati untuk dosa-dosa kita”.

Banyaknya kebingungan yang diakibatkan oleh klaim-klaim semacam itu pada campuran dogma dan kemunafikan yang sudah keruh meninggalkan kesan buruk bagi siapa pun yang dapat berpikir di luar dimensi religius. Sebagai orang spiritual yang mengingat reinkarnasi saya dan pengetahuan saya bahwa hanya ada Roh Dunia, kesalahpahaman tentang Tuhan dan kehidupan setelah kematian sungguh mengerikan. Tidak ada surga dan neraka, jadi tidak ada orang tua di atas sana yang tidak peduli dengan dunia dan dikalahkan oleh Iblis.

Gambar yang ditampilkan sama dengan Zeus, Dewa Yunani yang duduk di puncak Gunung Olympus. Dia sering digambarkan duduk dengan petir atau trisula di tangannya. Dia adalah dewa langit Yunani yang melahirkan banyak dewa lain dan menjadi dewa ayah.

Dia juga berkorespondensi dengan Jupiter, versi Italia dari Allah Bapa. Kuilnya adalah tempat yang digunakan Konstantinus untuk membangun Vatikan dan menerapkan parlemen para imam dan uskup untuk mengatur kekaisarannya. Dia mendirikan agama barunya pada tahun 325 di Konsili Nicea dan menciptakan Yesus Kristus sebagai Anak Allah. Tubuh ini sekarang dikatakan oleh banyak orang sebagai kekuatan Tuhan dan oleh karena itu kata-kata yang disebutkan di atas adalah sah.

Di Kapel Sisten Vatikan terdapat potret Allah Bapa karya Michelangelo. Itu ditugaskan oleh Paus Julius II dan oleh karena itu gambarnya digunakan dalam lukisan itu.

Citra langit yang tampaknya dimiliki kebanyakan orang adalah sesuatu yang menyerupai kota buatan manusia. Raja ada di singgasananya, dan para utusan bergegas ke sana kemari di gerbang dan memohon kepada mereka yang membutuhkan bantuan. St Peter (Jupiter) menjaga gerbang dan hanya mereka yang beragama Constantine yang diizinkan masuk karena dikatakan memegang kuncinya. Inilah hakikat Allah Bapa dan Dia tidak menjawab doa atau permintaan siapa pun.

Mengapa membeli kamera SLR digital Nikon D300 DX

Apakah mungkin melihat langit dengan kamera? Lebih khusus lagi, Kamera SLR Digital Nikon D300 DX. Mungkin. Mungkin tidak. Seperti halnya semua hal hebat, ada beberapa kekurangan. Sebagus kamera D300, ini bukan untuk semua orang, dan penting untuk mengetahui untuk siapa kamera ini. Setidaknya penting bagi mereka yang berpikir untuk membeli D300. Mari kita lihat beberapa hal yang perlu diingat.

Meskipun sulit menemukan kesalahan pada Nikon D300, hal pertama yang diperhatikan kebanyakan orang saat membeli sesuatu adalah harganya. Permintaan maaf kepada Warren Buffett, dan Bill Gates (postingan ini bukan untuk Anda). Ada beberapa pesaing kuat dalam kategori ini, termasuk Canon EOS 40D, Pentax K20D, Olympus E-3, dan Sony Alpha DSLR-A700. Pada saat penulisan, kamera ini dijual dengan harga kurang dari Nikon D300. Di mana saja dari $200 hingga kurang dari $500 menurut Amazon. Itu masalah besar, ketika Anda mempertimbangkan apa yang dapat dilakukan tambahan $ 500 dalam anggaran Anda untuk karya seni Anda.

Jika Anda mendekati full frame, mengapa tidak melakukannya saja? Apakah itu layak? Tidak, D300 bukan kamera full-frame, tetapi ada kamera full-frame hanya dengan beberapa ratus dolar. Saat ini, harga online menunjukkan Canon EOS 5D (full frame) sekitar $2100, sedangkan D300 adalah sekitar $1800. Tampaknya Nikon telah mendarat di antara batu dan tempat yang sulit dengan harga. Dengan beberapa ratus dolar saya dapat membeli kamera yang sebanding dari beberapa pengecer, atau dengan beberapa ratus dolar lebih, saya dapat membeli kamera sungguhan. Beberapa orang akan berpendapat bahwa menggunakan teknologi penuh adalah hal yang mudah.

Kalau bicara soal harga, saya lalai kalau tidak menyebut pendahulu D300, Nikon D200. Ini kamera yang bagus pastinya, dan harganya di bawah $ 1000 sekarang. D300 memiliki beberapa peningkatan yang tidak akan Anda dapatkan, tentu saja, seperti tampilan langsung, output HDMI, cengkeraman yang lebih baik, perangkat lunak NX Capture gratis, dan beberapa megapiksel tambahan. Harus ada sesuatu yang baru untuk semua orang. Meskipun saya telah mendengar dari beberapa pemilik D200 yang tidak dapat diganggu, dan tetap menggunakan D200 mereka.

Scuba dengan rumah kamera bawah air terbaik

Untuk semua penggemar scuba diving yang mencari informasi terkait housing kamera bawah air dan peralatan scuba lainnya, Anda perlu berbicara dengan ahli scuba diving. Dalam hal housing kamera bawah air, ini bisa menjadi bagian penting dari peralatan fotografer selam, terutama bagi fotografer profesional.

Jenis dan harga properti bisa sangat bervariasi. Beberapa dapat dibeli dengan harga sekitar $100, dan yang lainnya dapat berharga lebih dari $6.000, untuk penyelam scuba profesional. Tetapi jika Anda mencari nafkah dari fotografi bawah air, investasi itu sepadan, untuk fotografi seumur hidup itu.

Housing kamera bawah air kelas profesional:

Dawg Teratas:

Perumahan kamera Top Dawg menawarkan desain yang lebih baru yang dapat memuat lebih dari 180 kamera Sony.Ini memiliki monitor 3,5 inci yang lebih besar, port kaca optik depan dan lapisan anodisasi keras baru dari konstruksi aluminium. Ini adalah salah satu sistem video bawah air terbaik di dunia, cocok untuk para profesional dengan harga sekitar $2700.


Subal memproduksi jajaran rumah kamera top-of-the-line yang sesuai dengan merek kamera yang berbeda dan menawarkan konstruksi dan fitur berkualitas tinggi seperti opsi pemasangan lensa ganda yang memungkinkan lensa lebih lebar, yang tidak ditawarkan banyak model. Meskipun harganya dua kali lebih mahal dari lini Top Dawg, Subal memiliki pengikut setia di antara pakar fotografi bawah air profesional, bahkan dengan harga lebih dari $6.000.

Gerbang bawah air:

Sistem Kamera Bawah Air Gates adalah salah satu rumah kamera teratas yang menawarkan berbagai macam rumah kamera yang sesuai dengan kamera paling populer. Digambarkan sendiri sebagai “antipeluru”, dan bagus hingga lebih dari 400 meter, rumah kelas atas ini tersedia melalui dealer resmi, dan sulit untuk menemukan harga secara online, yang dapat memberi tahu Anda berapa harganya. Banyak fotografer profesional menggunakan sistem Gates, dan mereka adalah pemimpin dalam industri perumahan bawah air.

Tingkat semi-profesional dan pemula:


Perumahan bawah air Ikelite dirancang untuk kamera paling populer, seperti Canon, Nikon, Olympus, Sony dan Fuji. Ini dianggap kelas menengah, sekitar $1500, jadi semi-profesional bisa mendapatkan rumah andal yang memberikan kinerja profesional untuk bersaing dengan produk yang lebih mahal. Ini menawarkan berbagai port lensa yang dapat dipertukarkan dan sifat optik yang luar biasa.


Fuji telah mengeluarkan kamera digital kompak yang terjangkau yang dilengkapi dengan peralatan selam yang bagus hingga kedalaman 130 meter. Kurang dari $400, Anda bisa mendapatkan fotografi digital profesional, yang menjadikannya rumah yang terjangkau.


Olympus memiliki rangkaian rumah bawah air yang dapat menyelam hingga kedalaman sekitar 130 meter, dan memungkinkan fotografi digital bawah air dengan banyak jenis kamera digital. Dengan port yang dirancang untuk sudut lebar dan lensa makro, garis kamera bawah air memungkinkan pelari menangkap gambar yang lebih alami dengan LCD live-view.

Cagar Alam Pilanesberg – Sepuluh hal yang harus Anda ketahui sebelum berkunjung

Jika Anda berencana untuk mengunjungi cagar alam Pilanesberg, Anda harus mengetahui beberapa hal tentangnya sebelum Anda tiba.

Basis data game relatif baru tetapi menawarkan banyak peluang untuk menjelajahi game, hiburan, pembelajaran, dan fotografi alam.

1. Keunikan – Taman bermain ini terletak di reruntuhan gunung berapi alkalin yang telah punah yang aktif beberapa ribu tahun yang lalu. Jenis dan struktur batuan langka menjadikannya fitur geologis yang unik. Itu disebut “Gunung berapi yang melahirkan sebuah resor”. Ini berbeda dengan Kawah Ngorongoro di Tanzania karena dinding gunung berapi Pilanesberg runtuh ke dalam menciptakan banyak bukit kecil di dalam taman dibandingkan dengan Kawah Ngorongoro yang masih belum memiliki dinding. Selain itu, Pilanesberg berukuran dua kali lipat Kawah Ngorongoro.

2. Lokasi dan Sejarah – Di Wilayah Barat Laut Afrika Selatan (Sun City berada di tepi luar Pilanesberg). Cagar ini didirikan pada tahun 1979 setelah Operation Genesis mengambil alih permainan tersebut dan memperkenalkan kembali ribuan hewan. Taman berada di zona transisi antara Kalahari kering dan vegetasi Lowveld (Kruger), yang sering disebut “Bushveld”. Hal ini memungkinkan hewan dari kedua wilayah untuk hadir bersama. Springbok, hyena coklat, bulbul mata merah, dan pohon duri unta yang banyak dijumpai di daerah kering (seperti Kgalagadi dan Etosha) terlihat hidup bersama dengan hewan basah seperti impala, hyena tutul, bulbul mata hitam dan kastanye Cape. pohon yang sering dijumpai di Taman Kruger.

3. Ukuran – 580 kilometer persegi (sekitar 35 kali ukuran Taman Kruger!) Namun, Dewan Taman Barat Laut telah menjalankan rencana 8 tahun untuk menghubungkan Taman Nasional Pilanesberg dengan Madikwe Game Reserve seluas 800 kilometer persegi. Ini akan membuat koridor satwa liar sepanjang 100 km antara dua taman untuk membuat satu taman besar di area seluas 1500 kilometer persegi. Pilanesberg menerima hampir 400.000 pengunjung setahun dan bisa ramai, terutama selama musim liburan, jadi rencana perluasan ini sangat disambut baik!

4. Dikenal karena – Danau Mankwe, yang cenderung menjadi titik fokus dan tempat persembunyian burung tempat fotografer satwa liar dapat mendekati burung dan mamalia.

5. Jalan – Ada sekitar 200 kilometer jalan di taman, baik jalan beraspal maupun jalan tanah, menjadikan Pilanesberg tujuan safari yang sangat baik. Pilanesberg berjarak sekitar 150 kilometer dari Johannesburg dan jalan menuju taman semuanya beraspal.

6. Cuaca – Musim panas panas dengan hujan mulai bulan Oktober dan berakhir pada bulan April. Musim dingin adalah yang terbaik untuk melihat permainan dalam cuaca dingin, tetapi malam hari bisa jadi dingin.

7. Tempat tinggal – Ada delapan hotel di Pilanesberg, dua hotel murah (Manyane dan Bakgatla), dua dengan harga sedang (Kwa Maritane dan Bakubung) dan empat dengan harga tinggi (Pohon Gembala, Pohon Gading, Tshukudu, dan penginapan Buffalo Thorn). Manyane dan Bakgatla menawarkan berkemah dan chalet. Semua hotel memiliki braai (barbekyu) dan/atau restoran serta televisi dengan penerimaan DSTV.

8. Kegiatan dan Fasilitas – Fasilitas rapat dan kolam renang tersedia di semua hotel. Ada tujuh tempat persembunyian burung di taman, dan lima area piknik. Area Bird Hides dan Picnic semuanya dipagari dengan aman dan semuanya memiliki fasilitas akses tetapi hanya area piknik yang memiliki fasilitas braai. Gonggongan, area piknik, dan sudut pandang ini sangat bagus karena memungkinkan pengunjung untuk menikmati pengalaman “di luar mobil”. Pusat Pilanesberg berada di tengah cagar alam dan memiliki restoran serta toko. Anda dapat memilih antara safari mengemudi sendiri, safari berpemandu, dan/atau berkendara malam hari.

9. Saran Keselamatan – Tetaplah berada di mobil Anda saat berada di taman dan jangan mengemudi terlalu cepat demi keselamatan Anda dan hewan.

10. Hal-hal yang harus diperhatikan di Pilanesberg:

– Lima Besar Singa, Macan Tutul, Gajah, Badak (hitam dan putih), dan Kerbau

– The Super-tujuh – Lima Besar plus anjing dan Cheetah

– Brown Hyena

– Honey Badgers

– Sable, Eland, Tsessebe dan Red Hartebeest

– Kunjungi kulit burung terutama di musim dingin. Favorit kami adalah Mankwe dan Rathlogo.

– Safari balon udara

– Aviary berjalan ke kamp Manyane dan Sun City

– Sarapan atau makan siang di salah satu tempat piknik di atas bukit – pemandangannya menakjubkan

– Badak hitam langka – sering terlihat di Pilanesberg

Cagar Alam Pilanesberg tentu saja merupakan salah satu tempat paling menakjubkan di Afrika Selatan. Kelimpahan spesies langka di dalam taman, keindahannya yang menakjubkan dan kedekatannya dengan Sun City dan Johannesburg dikombinasikan dengan tidak adanya malaria, menjadikannya tujuan safari yang sangat menarik.

Self Drive Namibia Safaris: 3 Destinasi Teratas yang Harus Anda Lihat

Safari Namibia paling cemerlang menargetkan 3 tempat paling menarik ini.

#1- Damaraland

Damaraland berpenduduk jarang dan daerah sekitarnya dihantui oleh makhluk gaib. Geologi kanal, alam soliter, dan hutan tanda-tanda kuno dari dunia kuno, menerangi tempat itu dan menjadikan daerah itu magis.

ada tahun 2007, di Komite Warisan Dunia di Christchurch, Selandia Baru, pahatan batu San/Bushman di Twyfelfontein dianugerahi status Warisan Dunia. Terletak di Lembah Huab di sebelah barat kota Khorixas, Twyfelfontein adalah rumah bagi lebih dari 2.000 pahatan batu dan merupakan salah satu yang terbesar di Afrika.

#2 – Sossusvlei

Sossusvlei adalah tujuan yang luar biasa untuk safari mengemudi di Namibia, menjadikannya tujuan yang ideal. Pasir merah besar dan tampilan indah dari nuansa, warna dan cekungan, pelunakan dan pendalaman, pada siang hari menjadikan Sossusvlei tempat bagi para fotografer dan kekasih.

Sossusvlei terdiri dari bukit pasir berwarna-warni. Setiap jam dalam satu hari adalah unik dan seiring berjalannya waktu, warna-warna baru terus muncul, baik di bukit pasir, oranye, merah marun, merah muda, atau berlawanan dengan Pegunungan Tsar, biru tua dan ungu, selain kuning dan Tangan dari rumput menari, sangat mudah untuk merasakan cahaya saat mengunjungi Sossusvlei dengan safari mengemudi di Namibia. Ada juga burung unta, springboks, dan oryx yang berkeliaran di area tersebut seperti makhluk purba dari planet lain.

Bersama-sama, Sossusvlei dan Gurun Namib adalah rumah bagi beberapa bukit pasir tertinggi di dunia, banyak aktivitas pendakian, dan beberapa pendakian terbaik di dunia; latar belakang yang sangat nyata yang tidak dapat dibandingkan dengan tempat lain di dunia.

#3 – Taman Nasional Etosha

Etosha adalah salah satu taman nasional terbaik di Afrika, setelah Taman Nasional Serengeti di Tanzania. Pada tahun 2007 taman ini merayakan hari jadinya yang ke-100. Melihat sebagian besar permainan Afrika di safari mengemudi Namibia dengan lanskap Etosha Pan tidak seperti yang lain di Afrika.

Salah satu taman nasional terbaik di Afrika, di sebelah Taman Nasional Serengeti di Tanzania.

Etosha Pan, ciri khas taman nasional, adalah cekungan lumpur putih kering yang besar dan dangkal seluas 5.000 km². Lampu bersinar di kejauhan, dan hewan-hewan bergerak melalui gurun tanpa ada tempat tersisa. Itu kering hampir sepanjang tahun, sehingga memunculkan nama ‘tempat putih besar air kering’. Namun, saat hujan mulai turun, oshana di Owamboland mengalir ke dalam pot dan area tersebut menjadi tempat berkembang biak utama flamingo, yang merupakan puncak dari safari Namibia.

Ada 114 spesies mamalia, termasuk badak hitam langka dan terancam punah, cheetah, dan impala hitam. Satu-satunya hewan yang tidak ditemukan di Etosha adalah kuda nil dan buaya. Hampir semua hewan lain dapat ditemukan berkeliaran di taman. Ada juga sekitar 340 spesies burung, termasuk burung unta dan burung penyanyi.

Apa musim terbaik untuk melihat satwa liar Namibia di Etosha? Mulailah merencanakan safari Anda hari ini!

10 fakta yang harus Anda ketahui tentang Taman Nasional Kruger

Baca terus untuk semua yang perlu Anda ketahui tentang Taman Nasional Kruger. Area dan Safari Afrika Selatan memiliki begitu banyak hal untuk ditawarkan sehingga Anda perlu menemukan akomodasi Taman Kruger yang tepat untuk melayani perjalanan Anda dan panjangnya dengan sebaik-baiknya.

1. Taman Nasional Kruger terbentang di dua provinsi di Afrika Selatan – provinsi Mpumalanga dan Limpopo – dan keduanya menawarkan kesempatan untuk merasakan dan menikmati Safari Afrika Selatan.
2. Taman Nasional Kruger membentang 350 km dari Sungai Limpopo di utara hingga Sungai Sabie di selatan.
3. Taman Nasional Kruger seluas 2 juta hektar –
4. Ukurannya kira-kira sama dengan Wales.
5. Taman Nasional Kruger didirikan pada tahun 1898.
6. Salah satu cagar alam resor/kebun binatang/safari terbesar di dunia.
7. Di dalam kawasan margasatwa alami ini, cari tiga habitat berbeda, termasuk padang rumput gugur dan padang rumput selatan; kawasan savana tengah dan terakhir lahan kering mopane di utara.
8. Lima besar yang terkenal dapat ditemukan di Taman Kruger – singa, macan tutul, kerbau, gajah, dan badak.
9. Pengunjung taman diimbau untuk mematuhi batas kecepatan – untuk tidak menakut-nakuti hewan dan menghormati mereka di sekitarnya – saat menyeberang jalan.
10. Akomodasi Kruger Park Anda akan mendukung saran dan instruksi untuk menghindari meninggalkan kendaraan Anda.

Taman ini mencakup berbagai area, dan semuanya menawarkan hotel di Taman Nasional Kruger, termasuk Graskop Hotel, Hazyview Hotel, Marloth Park Hotel, Nelspruit Inn, Schoemanskloof Lodge, dan White River Lodge.